Aviation Information

Business Aviation Networking Notes


The process of finding out about a job, getting interviewed, and eventually receiving an offer for employment starts with networking. By networking I don't mean sending hundreds of copies of your resume unsolicited to H.

Top Ten Secrets to Saving Big Money in the Airline Flights


Do you know that some people travel around the country andabroad, for both business and pleasure, and save bundles of money in the process?They do that by using little known ways of really taking advantage of the most popular form of transportation - airline flights.They don't rely on the ever-famous "airfare price-wars".

So You Want to Get Free Airline Tickets: Should You Choose a Reward or Cash Back Credit Card?


If you want to use a reward credit card for getting free airline tickets, you have a choice of choosing a dedicated airline credit card, a travel reward credit card or a cash back credit card. A dedicated airline credit credit card has hefty annual fees and may not be worth it if you are not a very frequent traveller or do not spend enough on your credit card.

Airline Security; Stewardesses The Last Line Of Defense!


Introduction:It might come as a chock to many people, including the Stewardesses, but the fact remains that in today's Airline Industry, the Stewardess is the last line of defense!In the 11th of September terrorist attacks, on the WTC and Pentagon, the first victims were the Stewardesses. Savagely attacked by the terrorist on their way to the cockpit's and tortured to pressure pilots, to comply with the terrorists demands.

Airlines, Price Wars, and Branding


Here are some thoughts on the study of the theory of price wars as they relate to the industries like the Airlines and others. Comments on an article in Harvard Business Review in March-April edition 2000.

Preventing Rapid Decompression In Commercial Airliners


In Flight Airline Rapid Decompression Breached Window(Airline Safety)Here is a concept worthy of mention about the issues concerning Airline International Terrorists and Guns in the Cockpit and of course Federal Air Marshals. If a gun goes off in a smaller airliner, 737 or 767 then a bullet could penetrate a window and breach the pressurization system.

General Aviation Manufacturing is in the Tank; Hang On It is Going to Get Worse


Change is a constant, Outsourcing Jobs, Capital flows, Emerging Markets are a given and this includes the Aviation Manufacturing Sector as we watch the current Migration pick up speed.It appears that the technological advantage that we have here in the United States is no longer going to sustain us without further advances.

Hypersonic or Ultrasonic Sound to Disrupt Laser Beam Attack on Commercial Airliners


In large buildings to prevent sound pollution often double paned glass is used with music or flowing air between the panes, this works very well and is sufficient to prevent the noise. Since many commercial airliners have double paned glass already if we are careful to watch the harmonics as to not cause structural problems to the aircraft (remember the Comet), then we propose hypersound or ultrasonic sound within the panes to prevent laser light from entering the cockpit and inhibiting or blinding the pilots.

Airline Fuel Costs Mount


The airlines are huge users of fuel. Fuel costs are higher than even the cost of the aircraft.

Find Cheap Tickets From all the Major Airlines


All of the major airlines are now associated with different web sites allowing for you to find discount airfare and cheap tickets on the internet. One of the reasons the airlines have done this is because so many people now have access to computers and the internet.

Entering Business Aviation, Part I: Types of Aircraft


The jets that people fly in corporate aviation are usually a lot smaller than those found with the airlines. Exceptions to the rule are Boeing's BBJ and Airbus' Corporate Jet, both of which are based on some of the smaller types of aircraft marketed to the airlines.

Entering Business Aviation, Part II: Pay Rates for Flight Attendants


Pay. You know that aviation pays better than commercial, in most cases a lot better, but you aren't sure what the going rate is for a corporate flight attendant.

Entering Business Aviation, Part III: Training Options


Time for some training! So, you are not sure what type of training you will need or how it compares to the commercial side of aviation. For starters, there are some very big differences.

Entering Business Aviation, Part IV: Crafting a Resume


Writing a résumé can be one of the most daunting parts of any job search. Quite frankly, it is one of the most important elements in helping you finding work.

Entering Business Aviation, Part V: Tips on Finding Work


I will not pretend that this is the easiest topic to write about. In fact, my knowledge of how one finds work as a private flight attendant is based chiefly on what others have shared with me.

More Resources

Travel and Leisure:Aviation Airplanes Articles from EzineArticles.com
10/01/2019 09:31 AM
The Historic TWA Terminal and Lockheed Consellation at JFK
This article discusses the design, development, and history of both the Eero Saarinen-designed TWA Terminal at JFK and the Lockheed L-1649A Starliner that serves as its cornerstone. It reviews the major Constellation versions, from the original L-049 to the Super Constellations to the latest L-1649A.
09/18/2019 11:27 AM
Private Jet Sales Approach in a Tough 2019 Buyer's Market - Working With Trusting & Trusted Partners
2019 became a Buyer's market since 55 of the Worldwide 404 operational Hawker 800XPs were now available for sale, (representing 14% of the entire fleet), making this a challenging market for selling a Hawker 800XP or other similar pre-owned private jet aircraft. Consulting brokers, like The Private Jet Company, stay in constant touch with both buyers and sellers over years to answer any questions or concerns related to the private aviation industry, aircraft price trends, private jet ownership and future interests and as a result became trusted advisors for any private aviation matters. Early in the...
09/05/2019 05:07 PM
Aviation History Themes: From Jimmy Doolittle to the Movie "The Right Stuff"
This aviation theme collection explores several important aviation history topics. They include Jimmy Doolittle, the Battle of Britain, United States Naval Policy, an Interview with the Late Henry Lederer, 25 Years in Space, and the movie "The Right Stuff."
09/05/2019 05:07 PM
Aviation History Themes: From the Documentary "To Fly" to Charles Lindbergh
This article compilation explores several significant aviation history themes. It discusses such topics as the Smithsonian documentary film "To Fly," the Development of Air Transporation, the B-25 Mitchell, the Great Air Race of 1924, the movie "The Spirit of St. Louis," the B-17 Flying Fortress, US Airline Industry employment, and Charles Lindbergh.
08/28/2019 01:58 PM
The History of Long Island MacArthur Airport's Florida Service
This comprehensive article reviews and discusses the four-decade history of Long Island MacArthur Airport's scheduled airline service to Florida. It includes the airlines that provided it, including Northeastern, Eastern, Braniff, Carnival, AirTran, Delta Express, Spirit, Southwest, Allegiant Air, Elite, and Frontier.
08/20/2019 09:24 AM
The Regional Jet Airlines of Long Island MacArthur Airport
This article reviews the regional jet aiirline history of Long Island MacArthur Airport It discusses the types of regional jets operated--the Fokker F.28 Fellowship, the British Aerospace BAe-146, and Canadair CRJ, and the Embraer ERJ among them--as well as the airlines that flew them.
08/07/2019 10:14 AM
The Commuter Airlines of Long Island MacArthur Airport
This article reviews the history of the numerous commuter airlines that once offered scheduled service from Islip's Long Island MacArthur Airport. It discusses such carriers as Pilgrim, NewAir, Precision, Ransome, Suburban, Allegheny Commuter USAir Express, the Delta Connection, and TWExpress, along with the aircraft they operated and their schedules.
07/08/2019 12:46 PM
The Aviation History of Port Washington, Long Island
This article traces the rich aviation heritage of Port Washington, Long Island. It discusses the development of amphibious aircraft, its early aviation manufacturers, the Pan Am flying boat era,, and the activities of the Grumman Corporation and the Republic Aviation Corporation.
06/04/2019 09:49 AM
Components to Scrutinize When Engaging Global Aviation Asset Management Companies
Whom to consider for Global Aviation Asset Management of your airport based operations and infrastructure. More organizations than ever before are choosing to engage professional aviation management companies for their complex aviation holdings.
05/17/2019 03:17 PM
The Lockheed L-188 Electra
This article discusses the design, development, and history of the Lockheed L-188 turboprop Electra. It then delves into the aircraft's design flaws, reviewing the Braniff and Northwest accidents and how they revealed the flaws themselves.
05/06/2019 02:57 PM
The Boeing 747-400
This article discusses the design, development, and history of the Boeing 747-400, numerically the most popular version. It also reviews the aircraft's specialized derivatives.
04/30/2019 03:55 PM
The History of Cathay Pacific Airways
This article reviews the history of Hong Kong-based Cathay Pacific Airways. It details its many fleet acquisitions and route expansions throughout the years.
04/23/2019 09:43 AM
The History of Mattituck Airport
This article reviews the history of Mattituck Airport, located in Mattituck, Long island, on its North Fork. More importantly, it discusses the now closed, but once valuable revenue source derived from, its piston engine repair and overhaul facility.
07/23/2018 02:16 PM
Warbirds Away! Visit the Commemorative Air Force Museum in Mesa, AZ
The Commemorative Air Force is leading the way in preserving our rich aviation history. This amazing establishment is a working aircraft restoration and repair facility, and is home to an incredible fleet of restored military aircraft.
07/18/2018 11:06 AM
The Boeing 747: The End of an Era
The Boeing 747, often referred to as the "Jumbo Jet," was a remarkable commercial jetliner for its time. The world's first ever wide-body airplane produced, the so called "Queen of the Skies," boasted an upper deck, and a passenger capacity that remained unrivalled for decades. The 747-100 first entered service in 1970 with, the now defunct, PanAm.
07/18/2018 08:09 AM
How to Go About Selecting a Flying School
There are people who are lucky to live near many flight schools. In such a case, comparing the packages becomes a very easy thing. However, regardless of the number of schools that are available, it is important to consider some things that will ensure that you end up in the best school.
07/17/2018 08:15 AM
Why Should You Pursue a Flight Instructor Career?
There are different ways in which you can make a career in the aviation industry. One of the most popular options is to be a commercial pilot. However, there are many students who have gotten their certificates as commercial pilots but still choose to try out flight instructor courses. There are many reasons as to why a pilot may choose to become an instructor instead and they include:
07/17/2018 08:13 AM
Things You Need to Know If You Want to Be a Flight Instructor
If you choose to become a flight instructor, then you should know that it is going to be very tough but rewarding. In all honesty, when you decide to pursue the course, you may realize that you need to work extra hard so as to get a good rating. Before getting started, then there are some things that you should be aware about.
07/17/2018 08:13 AM
What Are the Things That Make a Great Instructor?
Getting an instructor can make or break you. When you want to learn how to fly, you should take time to consider who will teach you and where the lessons will be conducted. Even if you choose a great flying school, you should consider the mind of instructors they have and how qualified they are to give such lessons.
06/09/2018 08:29 PM
The Air Force Armament Museum
This article reviews the Air Force Armament Museum in Florida. Its highlights include both weapons and the aircraft that delivered them.
06/06/2018 08:17 AM
The National Naval Aviation Museum
This article offers a comprehensive guide to the National Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida, located on the Naval Air Station of the same name. It then discusses many of the signficant aircraft that played a decisive role in the Navy's history, ensuring US victory, from the earliest A-1 Triad to the Grumman F-14 Tomcat.
05/18/2018 04:31 PM
Long Island MacArthur Airport: The Frontier Years
This article reviews the many airlines that have commenced and discontinued service at Long Island MacArthur Airport during the past half-decade. They include PenAir, Allegiant, Elite Airways, National Airlines, and Frontier Airlines.
03/28/2018 11:00 AM
The Hybrid Future OF Aerospace
When it comes to environmental impacts, the global aviation industry accounts for a mere 2% of greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, there is a growing environmental concern. Since 1990, the industry has witnessed an 83% rise in emission levels.
03/23/2018 08:10 AM
Aviation Industry
We live in an era where saving time is more critical than saving money. Perhaps this is why air transportation, which earlier was solely reserved for the extremely affluent or for emergencies, is now being used on par with its competitors, i.e.
02/07/2018 09:17 PM
The History of Northeastern International Airways
This article reviews the four-year aircraft fleet and destination history of Northeastern International Airways. More importantly, it discusses the legacy it left by serving as the catalyst to the growth of Long Island MacArthur Airport.
12/26/2017 09:38 AM
Quick Guide to The Basic Services Offered by Fixed-Based Operators
Wondering what Fixed-Based Operator (FBO) services are all about? Read below to find the relevant aspects of these companies and the services they perform.
12/26/2017 07:58 AM
The UAV Market Takes Off Amid Rising Military Applications
A UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) is a small pilotless aircraft, which is either controlled by a remote or an app. The global unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) market is poised to register a CAGR of 9.27%, during 2018-2023 (the forecast period) as per a report by a market intelligence firm.
12/19/2017 08:02 AM
Air Freight - An Easy Way To Shift
Overview Air freight is the shipment and transfer of goods via an air carrier that may be commercial or charter. Such shipments can travel out of commercial and passenger aviation gateways to anywhere the planes can fly and land. The global air freight market report is segmented by aircraft type and freight item.
11/21/2017 10:08 AM
Aircraft Fasteners - How Are Fasteners Used in Aircrafts?
Fasteners name is self defined which clearly means to fasten a component in an assembly or sub assembly. Fasteners aid in holding an assembly together. Bolts, Nuts, Washers can be classified under Fasteners.
11/17/2017 09:43 AM
Knowing The Relevance of Fixed Base Operators on Commercial Airports
Fixed Base Operators or FBOs are one of the critical pillars for general aviation management and in some cases commercial airline activity. Read below to find out more about their work and importance in the industry.
11/05/2017 08:07 PM
The Tupolev Tu-144 Supersonic Transport
This article traces the design and development of the former Soviet Union's supersonic airliner, the Tupolev Tu-144. It discusses why it and its second, Tu-144D version, failed to enter scheduled service, along with the NASA program involving the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory.
11/02/2017 10:13 PM
The Boeing 2707 Supersonic Transport
This article discusses the design, development, and history of the Boeing 2707 and its three -100, -200, and -300 versions. It concludes with why it was not economically feasible and why it never proceeded into production.
10/17/2017 09:54 AM
Understanding Aviation Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) Management Better
Wondering what MRO is all about? Read below to learn some of the basic facts and details of aviation maintenance repair and overhaul management services.
10/09/2017 09:08 PM
Mid-Nineties Memories of Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome
This article takes a look at the acts and antics, along with the significance aircraft, that formed a part of the mid-1990 air shows at Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome. It discusses such designs as the Pitcairn Mailwing, the Great Lakes sport trainer, the de Havilland DH.82A Tiger Moth, the Davis D-1W, and the Travel Air.
10/04/2017 09:36 PM
Temporary Barnstormer at Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome
This article takes the reader on an aerial journey on board an open-cockpit New Standard D-25 biplane from Cole Palen's Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome in Dutchess County, New York. If describes the sights and sensations of being exposed to the elements while flying over the Hudson Valley, very much like those experienced during the barnstorming days of early aviation.
10/01/2017 11:45 AM
Aircraft Cleaning To Get Easier In The Future - Plane Washing And Debugging
Let's face it, it's hard to get bugs off the leading edges of helicopter blades, corporate jet leading edges and aircraft tail sections. It's the aircraft cleaner's worst nightmare to see an aircraft sitting in the sun while all those crushed bug guts bake into the paint. Yes, in an aircraft cleaners dreams our nightmares are Bugs, Bugs and more Bugs, and yes, the occasional bird strike too, guts everywhere, that's simply no fun. Now then, there is a new method and technology being developed which might be a god's send for us plane washers. So, let's discuss this shall we?
09/28/2017 08:06 AM
Aviation Industry at Risk: Declining Commercial Pilots
The aviation industry currently faces an escalating crisis, owing to the shortage of qualified pilots for operating the aircrafts. According to a new report published by the Boeing Pilot Outlook, in 2016, there is significant need of enlisting about 112,000 pilots from this year to 2035 in the North American aviation industry alone. Furthermore, the demand for pilots in Asia-Pacific has been increasing significantly, owing to the growth of the aviation industry in the region. Additionally, the pilot shortage crisis has already started affecting major US carriers. As a result, Republic Airlines filed for bankruptcy in Feb 2016.
09/27/2017 07:51 AM
Aviation Tire Safety And A New Technology To Better Utilize Aircraft Tires
When tires blow out on aircraft, it often causes the plane to skid abruptly, perhaps even off the runway, and/or perhaps damage the undercarriage. Perhaps there are some new technologies which can alert pilots of potential failure when the treads are worn down too low to be safe? Let's discuss this shall we?
09/19/2017 09:42 AM
Things Worth Knowing About Airport Facility Management
How much do you know about airport facility management? What does it take to find a professional service provider that specializes in this sector? Please read below to find out more.
09/18/2017 08:03 AM
Aircraft Upgrade: Sentinel R Mk 1
Overview - In order to maintain the Sentinel R Mk1 aircraft in its fleet, the Ministry of Defense (UK) together with the Raytheon Group (UK) have signed a contract for IRP (Improved Radar Programme). The IRP is an upgrade which helps to merge the receiver and the processor while providing saving on size, weight as well as power.
09/08/2017 04:37 PM
The Downfall of Pratt & Whitney and the Rise of Ge: Indigo's Troublesome A320
Indigo Airlines, the biggest low-cost carrier (LCC) of India is headquartered in Gurgaon, New Delhi. The airlines are now planning to replace its fleet of Airbus A320-neo aircraft with engines provided by GE after experiencing technical issues with the engines of Pratt & Whitney. Currently, the low-cost carrier has ambitious plans to expand operations in the regional aviation market, as well as low-cost long haul international flights.
08/31/2017 04:28 PM
Flying an Airplane by Myself - My First Solo As a 16 Year Old
As a young boy, I gazed ever skyward and forever dreamed of slipping the bonds of earth. My ever present dream for flight has taken me on a journey through challenges, perseverance, encouragement and excitement. This is the story of my first solo flight.
08/24/2017 03:16 PM
The Aerospace Ducting Market Has High Growth Potential With Composites Ducting Growing the Fastest
The aerospace & defense ducting market was valued at US$ 2.1 billion in 2016 and is likely to grow at a healthy CAGR of 5.7% during the forecast period to reach US$ 2.95 billion in 2022.
08/24/2017 03:08 PM
Hardware Components Dominate the Aerospace and Defense C-Class Parts Market
Aerospace and defense c-class parts market includes low cost and high volume commodity parts such as fasteners and bearings. C-class aerospace parts are segmented into four major heads which are hardware components, bearings, electronic components and machined parts for both commercial and military aircraft.
07/27/2017 06:15 PM
The History of Republic Airport
This article offers an extensive review of the history of Republic Airport in Farmingdale, New York. It discusses all of the major aircraft manufacturers once based there, including Fairchild, Grumman, Seversky, Republic, and Fairchild-Republic, looks at its brief scheduled airline operations, and hints at its future.
07/24/2017 12:56 PM
Everything You Wanted to Know About Fixed-Based Operator Services
Some areas related to Fixed-Based Operator (FBO) services can be confusing. Read on to find some of the important details below.
07/17/2017 10:15 AM
Here's Why You Need Help for Aviation Infrastructure Management
Want to know more about aviation infrastructure management? Please read below to find some of the relevant aspects that should be considered when hiring a company.
07/05/2017 12:32 PM
The Best Destinations to Fly Inside Australia From Sydney With Virgin Airlines
If you would like to travel with a small budget all around Australia, discover our recommendations. From Perth to Byron Bay, you will be able to travel to the best destinations without spending thousands of dollars.
07/03/2017 03:53 PM
The History of TAP Air Portugal
This article traces the route and fleet development of TAP Air Portugal. It also briefly discusses its predecessors--namely, Aero Portuguesa and Companhia de Transportes (CTA).
07/03/2017 10:17 AM
Guide for Selecting an Aircraft Charter and Management Specialist
Looking to hire an aircraft charter and management specialist? Read on to find the aspects that matter the most.

More Aviation Information:

Related Articles

India Air Traffic Issues to Come
As India increases its economic growth the population is taking to the air in travel and more and more are flying. Commercial Aviation traffic has increased ten fold in te last five years and is expected to do so again.
Cleaning Air Cargo Containers
If you own a pressure washing business, janitorial service or truck washing business you owe it to yourself to look into the cleaning of air cargo containers. The cleaning of air-cargo containers is a necessity and it is a consistent business.
How to Get a Free Airline Upgrade on Your Flight
Everyone wants to buy a cheap economy ticket and get bumped up to business or first class. I mean who doesn't want more comfort, more legroom, better service and lounge access? The new generation of flat seats makes flying long-haul more comfortable than ever before.
FAA Intervention in Privatized Space Flight is Ridiculous
Burt Rutan and his team of designers, engineers and test pilots at Scaled Composites did something no private group had ever done. They proved that private space flight is feasible and safe.
Business Aviation Networking Notes
The process of finding out about a job, getting interviewed, and eventually receiving an offer for employment starts with networking. By networking I don't mean sending hundreds of copies of your resume unsolicited to H.
First Class Airfare: How the Rich Travel
Have you ever wondered what all entails first class airfare, but never knew where to look? First class airfare can cost up to 15 times more than the regular fares for the same trip. So what do travelers living the high life actually get for these super inflated prices? Well, a lot.
Automated Satellite Following System for UAV Swarms
Much work is being done and the USAF has implemented systems to fly UAVs Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in ah hoc formations like swarms of insects or flock of birds. We cannot quite match evolution and bird flock formations but we are on our way.
Airbus A-380 is Pretty Big
You know the Airbus A-380 is so huge it takes 2 hours to load and unload and that is if you are rushing the people on and off like cattle. The aircraft holds more fuel than a Boeing 727 weighs.
Automated Following Jump System for Paratroopers, AFJS
There are many problems of safety in paratrooper drops. Many times night jumps are done or drops are made into the battlespace under low visibility.
Airline Travel Lingo! Does The Language Need An Interpreter?
With airline travel increasing in record numbers, more people are experiencing the frustration of understanding the airlines industry language, and leaving them feeling that they need an interpreter for the travel information they're receiving from the airline industry!It seems that air companies think that every individual that flies should have to understand all that travel Jargon they place on their flight reservations, and maybe it's about time we figure out what they're talking about, because it's costing you money and valuable time!Once you learn all the airlines travel terms, you won't be dependent on your local travel agent anymore, and he/she won't be able to collect all the wonderful service fees from you for being your traveling interpreter.The price of your travel flight is based on many intricate components that the airlines reservations department implement, not to purposely confuse you, but to formulate their airfares and determine what they need to charge each passenger for all flights taken.
Travel Tips:Tips for Safer flying
Flying can be an adventure, but like everything else in life, there are small risks. Even though flying is the safest way to travel in this modern age, here are some tips to minimize any unfortunate, but unlikely event of an emergency situation.
Entering Business Aviation, Part II: Pay Rates for Flight Attendants
Pay. You know that aviation pays better than commercial, in most cases a lot better, but you aren't sure what the going rate is for a corporate flight attendant.
Airport Travel Tips: Reducing Waiting Times
Key Travel TipsFollowing these tips will help you reduce your wait time at the security checkpoint.Before you go to the Airport? Do not pack or bring Prohibited Items to the airport.
Aviation Lawyer: Whether Passenger, Pilot or Owner, You May Need an Aviation Lawyer
If you or a family member has been the victim of an airplane accident, you should find an Aviation Lawyer (Attorney) to help you. It is important to contact an Aviation Lawyer because of the highly specialized nature of Aviation Law.
Private Jets: 4 Leaders in Fractional Flying
Fractional flying, you say. Is that division? Well, sort of.
Is your air traffic control person real?
Have you ever been flying around in your private plane and the control tower or approach control has sent you on a vector or asked you to do something, which made no sense at all? But of course you did it anyway, because they are in charge right? You might have thought to yourself; "Is this guy for real?" "Is this guy in some kind of dreamland, asleep up there?" Well in the future such questions may not be too far off actually. For instance your air traffic control tower professional maybe in augmented reality, sitting in a room with no windows looking at your aircraft on a TV screen or video monitor.
Increasing TAS in Modern Day Fighters with Expandable Wing Tips
As fighter aircraft get faster and faster there is a diminishing return on more aerodynamic streamlining in designs. You can only build the aircraft so "Aerodynamically Correct" once you have the best optimum design for speed, there is little you can do without changing the aircraft in-flight or the air itself.
Entering Business Aviation, Part III: Training Options
Time for some training! So, you are not sure what type of training you will need or how it compares to the commercial side of aviation. For starters, there are some very big differences.
China is Starting to Build Military Fighter Trainers
China is entering the jet fighter trainer business and set to start building a completely new generation of trainers called the JL-19 Mountain Eagle. The jet is also know as the FTC-2000, which is interesting, as the FTC is the agency which is crippling our US Corporations competitiveness over seas now.
How to Save on Airfare
The Internet has provided a revolution in the way people shop for airfares. What used to be the province only of connected travel agents is now the province of every Internet connected traveler.